Brief Fact Summary. Surrogate mother Whitehead (Defendant) declined to turn her baby over to the Sterns, even though she had contracted to do so.
Synopsis of Rule of Law. A surrogate mother contract is not enforceable.
The court must find (1) that the child's health and development has been or will be seriously impaired by the parenting relationship; (2) the parents are unable or unwilling to eliminate the harm and delay in permanent placement will add to the harm; (3) alternatives to terminating parental rights have been thoroughly explored and exhausted, including efforts to help the parents cure the problems that led to the placement; and (4) that termination of parental rights will not do more harm than good.View Full Point of Law
Issue. Is a surrogate mother contract enforceable?
Held. (Wilentz, C.J.)Â No.Â A surrogate mother contract is not enforceable.Â As a matter of public policy, private placement of children, though not illegal, is highly disfavored.Â Beyond that, a surrogacy contract runs afoul of state laws prohibiting the use of money connected to adoptions, laws that require proof of parental unfitness prior to termination of parental rights, and laws that make surrender of custody and consent to adoptions revocable in private placement adoptions.Â In a surrogacy contract, money is the sine qua non of the contract, which clearly violates legislatively expressed policy.Â In addition, a surrogacy contract allows the termination of parental rights without a finding of lack of fitness, which is exactly what happened to Defendant in this case.Â Finally, the surrogacy contract removes the legislatively mandated revocability requirement, which Defendant definitely would have exercised here.Â Except for the statutory issues, the constitutional right to procreate is not involved, as this consists only of bringing a child into existence.Â Following birth, other issues of interest to the state may enter the analysis, as they have done in this case.Â For these reasons, surrogacy contracts are not valid, including this one.Â [The court, employing a best interests of the child test, awarded Plaintiff custody but reinstated Defendant’s parental rights, and remanded for a visitation decree.]
Discussion. For the most part, surrogacy contracts have met with disfavor.Â The main reason is that it is perceived to degrade women, making them into incubators.Â Surrogacy agreements have also been criticized as baby selling.Â Finally, some have even said that the contract is similar to an indentured servitude agreement that would be illegal under the Thirteenth Amendment.