On October 23, 1999, an unknown person posted a “trial” profile of Plaintiff Carafano without her permission or knowledge in the Los Angeles section of the site (Plaintiff is also known by her stage name as Chase Masterson). Such profile included sexually related commentary and contained photos of the actress and listed her movies. It also provided a fake email address for contact, and upon sending an email to this address, one would get an automatic response stating “You think you are the right one? Proof it!!”, and provided Plaintiff’s home address and telephone number. As a result of the profile, Plaintiff received numerous threats and sexually explicit messages via email and voicemail. After contacting the website and getting the profile removed, Plaintiff filed suit against Defendant in California, alleging invasion of privacy, misappropriation of the right of publicity, defamation, and negligence. After removal, the district court granted Defendant’s motion for summary judgment, although it rejected Defendant’s immunity argument under 47 U.S.C. §230(c)(1).
There were two purposes for this immunity: a) to promote the free exchange of information and ideas over the Internet; and b) to encourage voluntary monitoring for offensive or obscene material. In order to uphold these purposes, courts have defined “interactive computer service” very broadly and “information content provider” very narrowly. Accordingly, an “'interactive computer service” qualifies for immunity so long as it does not also function as an “information content provider” for the portion of the statement or publication at issue.
Citing Betzel (immunity for an electronic newsletter who selected and published an allegedly defamatory email over the Internet), the court observed that § 230(c) provides broad immunity for publishing content provided primarily by third parties. Turning to the facts at hand, the court noted that although certain portions of the content on the individual members’ profiles was formulated based on the members’ responses to the questionnaire, Defendant’s immunity would not be impaired, as the selection of the content was entirely within the control of the member. Therefore, Defendant cannot be considered an “information content provider” under the statute because no profile has any content until a user actively creates it.
Essentially, Defendant’s role was analogous to the customer rating system discussed in Gentry, where Defendant eBay did not transform into an “information content provider” solely because it compiled false and/or misleading content created by the individual defendants and other coconspirators. Similarly, the fact that Defendant classifies user characteristics into various discrete categories and collects responses to specific essay-type questions does not transform Defendant into a “developer” of the underlying information.
The critical issue in these cases is whether the defendant acted as an information content provider with respect to the information that plaintiff claims is false or misleading. Analyzing the case at hand, the court recognized the information about Plaintiff’s home address, movie credits, and the email address that revealed her phone number were transmitted unaltered to profile viewers, and the profile directly reproduced the most sexually suggestive comments in the essay section (none of which bore more than a tenuous relationship to the actual questions asked). Therefore, it cannot be said that Defendant played a significant role in creating, developing or transforming the relevant information.