Brief Fact Summary. The Plaintiffs, Mitchell and David Cope (Plaintiffs), appealed from a decision that denied a zoning exception to build eight (8) multi-unit apartment buildings in Brunswick, Maine. Under the zoning ordinance, such an exception could only be granted upon determination by the Brunswick Board of Zoning Appeals (the Board) of certain factors concerning health, safety and welfare and the adverse affect on the characteristics of surrounding property.
Synopsis of Rule of Law. An ordinance requiring a Board of Zoning Appeals to make determinations of health, safety, welfare requirements of community and to assess the characteristics of the surrounding property when making decisions to grant zoning exceptions was an unconstitutional delegation of legislative authority and thus was facially unconstitutional
the legislative body must spell out its policies in sufficient detail to furnish a guide which will enable those to whom the law is to be applied to reasonably determine their rights thereunder, and so that the determination of those rights will not be left to the purely arbitrary discretion of the administrator.View Full Point of Law
Issue. Does the ordinance improperly delegate the Board authority to permit the use of the land for construction of the apartment building?
Held. The Brunswick Zoning ordinance was an unconstitutional delegation of legislative power. An ordinance that grants a broad delegation of power to make or not make zoning exceptions based on a Zoning Board’s assessments of health, safety, welfare and essential property characteristics could lead to selectivity in enforcement of the law. It also posed the danger that the Board would apply the ordinance discriminatory manner and the provisions requiring consideration of health, safety and welfare and character of the neighborhood were more properly addressed by the legislature. Therefore, sections 2 (health, safety and welfare) and section 4 (characteristics of surrounding property) were unconstitutional delegations of legislative power to the Brunswick Zoning Board.
Discussion. An exception, to be granted by the Brunswick Zoning Board, was a conditional use to be allowed only after a legislative determination that is made that such a use would not be detrimental or injurious to the zone. The Supreme Court found that legislature must make the legislative determination that multi-unit apartments would be permissible. The sections that allowed the Board to take its own assessment into consideration made the ordinance an unconstitutional delegation of power.