ProfessorBrittany L. Raposa
CaseCast™ – "What you need to know"
Brief Fact Summary. Hertz Corp. (D) had a class action suit against it. It tried to get the suti removed to federal court, citing diversity jurisdiction as the ground. However, the employees (P) raised the objection that since California was the principal source of revenue for Hertz (D), and most of its business activities were performed there, California should be deemed the principal place of business.
Synopsis of Rule of Law. The term “principal place of business” in the federal diversity jurisdiction statute means the location from which the major activities of the corporation are directed, coordinated and controlled by the high level officers of the corporation.
Issue. The question is whether the phrase “principal place of business” in the federal diversity jurisdiction statute refers to the place which serves as headquarters or the center of operations planning.
Held. (Breyer, J.) Yes.
The term “principal place of business” in the federal diversity jurisdiction statute means the place where the cardinal activities of business are carried out, like high-level planning, directing and coordinating corporate strategy and daily activities. It has also been called the nerve center test by some courts. It means the place where the high level officers meet for these activities. The statutory intent of the term is clarified by the use of the singular word ‘place’ rather than ‘places’. Moreover this definition makes the application easier and more straightforward in the interests of upholding judicial power. The history of the statute also seems to confirm that this was the intent of the lawmakers, by refusing to accept a more complex definition like “the place which supplies half of gross income” as initially suggested by the Judicial Conference and later rejected as impractical. The concept of the place being a “nerve center” is simple to grasp and to apply. While every such test will have its drawbacks in terms of administrative ease and fulfilling the purpose of the statute, some complexity must be accepted so that the rule may be clear enough to satisfy the need.
The nerve center test locates a corporation's principal place of business in the state where the majority of its executive and administrative functions are performed.View Full Point of Law