A approaches B from behind, menacingly, with a loaded pistol. B is totally deaf, and does not notice this. He only learns of it later.
(a) B liable to A in assault, because a person with hearing would have turned around and noticed the threatening behavior.
(b) B is not liable to A because A was not put in imminent apprehension of harmful or offensive contact.
(c) B is not liable to A because even if A had turned around to see the activity, there is not evidence that he had cocked the pistol or uttered any threat.
(d) None of the above.
A runs towards B with his fist raised. B is a dyed in the wool coward. A stops just short of B and does not strike him. An ordinary person would not be frightened, but B trembles with fear.
(a) A is liable to B in assault because it does not matter how an ordinary person would react.
(b) A is not liable to B because imminent apprehension is gauged by the standard of the reasonable (not cowardly) man.
(c) Neither (a) not (b) are correct.
A as a joke upon B, disguises himself as a tramps and accosts B on a lonely road, pointing an unladed pistol at saying, “Your money or your life.”
Write an analysis of the issues raised by this hypothetical, including how you think it should be resolved.