Brief Fact Summary. The defendant owned several businesses around the Logan Airport area of Boston. He hired two people to aid him in opposing a tunnel project which threatened to adversely affect those businesses. All three were indicted for conspiracy to commit tax related fraud against the United States government in connection with those activities.
Synopsis of Rule of Law. A co-conspirator takes the conspiracy as he finds it, and becomes responsible for all aspects of the conspiracy. As a result, statements made by a co-conspirator prior to his joining the conspiracy may be admitted under Federal Rule of Evidence (“F.R.E.”) Rule 801(d)(2)(E), the co-conspirator exception to the hearsay rule, even if made prior to joining the conspiracy.
Issue. Whether out of court statements made during a conversation between the defendant and one of the lobbyists admitting one of the payment schemes was properly admitted under F.R.E Rule 801(d)(2)(E)?
Held. Yes. Even though Lango was not yet a member of the conspiracy when the statements are made, the majority view on the co-conspirator exception to the hearsay rule is that those who join a conspiracy “take the conspiracy as they find it” and become responsible for everything it contains upon joining.
Federal circuit courts have not permitted application of the sentencing enhancement to every situation where a defendant knew or was told by someone in authority that what she was doing was illegal.View Full Point of Law