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Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 515 U.S. 200, 115 S. Ct. 2097, 132 L. Ed. 2d 158, 1995 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Adarand Constructors, a low-bidding subcontractor denied a contract on a federal highway project, sued the Secretary of Transportation, alleging that the federal governments incentives to hire minority subcontractors denied him equal protection of the laws. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Race classification by the federal government is subject to strict scrutiny. ...

Frontiero v. Richardson
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 411 U.S. 677, 93 S. Ct. 1764, 36 L. Ed. 2d 583, 1973 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. A female Air Force Lieutenant sought increased benefits on the basis of her husband as a dependent, which were refused by the armed services' policy of only allowing men to claim wives presumptively as dependents. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Gender-based classifications, like racial classifications, must pass strict scrutiny. ...

Milliken v. Bradley
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 418 U.S. 717, 94 S. Ct. 3112, 41 L. Ed. 2d 1069, 1974 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The schools of the city of Detroit, Michigan were racially imbalanced in the eyes of the District Court. The court's remedy was to redraw lines of neighboring suburban school districts to achieve racial balance within the city's schools. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The District Courts cannot redraw the lines of integrated school systems to achieve racial balance in a segregated school system absent an interdistrict violation or effect. ...

Board of Education of Oklahoma City Public Schools v. Dowell
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 498 U.S. 237, 111 S. Ct. 630, 112 L. Ed. 2d 715, 1991 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Petitioner, Board of Education of Oklahoma City (Petitioner), sought dissolution of the District Court-imposed school desegregation plan. Synopsis of Rule of Law. District Court authority over school districts extends only until the districts in question have complied with the injunctions long enough to reasonably redress past segregation. ...

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 438 U.S. 265, 98 S. Ct. 2733, 57 L. Ed. 2d 750, 1978 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Respondent, Bakke (Respondent), a white applicant to the University of California, Davis Medical School, sued the University, alleging his denial of admission on racial grounds was a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution (Constitution). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Although race may be a factor in determining admission to public educational institutions, it may not be a sole determining ...

Brown v. Board of Education
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 349 U.S. 294, 75 S. Ct. 753, 99 L. Ed. 1083, 1955 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. After ruling school segregation unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) (Brown I), local school boards sought judicial guidance as to the appropriate remedy for the segregation. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Federal courts may sit in equity to enforce judgments of the Supreme Court of the United States (Supreme Court). ...

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 402 U.S. 1, 91 S. Ct. 1267, 28 L. Ed. 2d 554, 1971 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. School districts undergoing desegregation under Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) (Brown I), and Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955) (Brown II), sought clarification of their duties and the scope of federal district courts' power under [Brown I/II]. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The scope of District Court authority is broad, but enters only when local school districts have not voluntarily brought themselves into compliance with ...

Palmer v. Thompson
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 403 U.S. 217, 91 S. Ct. 1940, 29 L. Ed. 2d 438, 1971 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Jackson, Mississippi operated public swimming pools, but kept them segregated until it eventually closed or sold them all. Synopsis of Rule of Law. An official governmental action that denies access to public facilities to all citizens does not violate the Equal Protections Clause of the United States Constitution (Constitution). ...

Personnel Administrator of Massachusetts v. Feeney
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 442 U.S. 256, 99 S. Ct. 2282, 0 L. Ed. 2d 870, 1979 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Respondent, Feeney (Respondent), challenges the Petitioner, Personnel Administration of Massachusetts's (Petitioner), rule that provides a hiring preference to military veterans. Synopsis of Rule of Law. A gender neutral statute that adversely impacts one gender does not violate the Equal Protection Clause of the United States Constitution (Constitution) if it does not have a discriminatory purpose and it does not actually classify one gender. ...

Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 429 U.S. 252, 97 S. Ct. 555, 50 L. Ed. 2d 450, 1977 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Respondent, Metropolitan Housing Development Corp. (Respondent), applied to the Petitioner, Village of Arlington Heights (Petitioner), for rezoning of a parcel from single family to multi-family, low-income housing. The rezoning was denied and Respondent sued citing racial discrimination. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Discriminatory effect alone does not render a governmental decision unconstitutional. There must be a motivating discriminatory purpose. ...