Search Results

Geduldig v. Aiello
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 417 U.S. 484, 94 S. Ct. 2485, 41 L. Ed. 2d 256, 1974 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. California operated a disability insurance system that paid benefits to employees of private employers when workers compensation did not cover certain disabilities that prevented those employees from working. However, many pregnancy related disabilities were excluded from coverage because of expenses to the program. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Underinclusive legislation is appropriate under the Equal Protection Clause, so long as the line drawn by the S ...

Orr v. Orr
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 440 U.S. 268, 99 S. Ct. 1102, 59 L. Ed. 2d 306, 1979 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Laws of the State of Alabama would require men in some cases to pay alimony on divorce, but women were in no case required to pay alimony. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Without an important state interest and substantially related means, the State may not classify on the basis of sex. ...

Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 458 U.S. 718, 102 S. Ct. 3331, 73 L. Ed. 2d 1090, 1982 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Respondent, Hogan (Respondent), was denied admission to Mississippi University for Women's (MUW) nursing program solely on the basis of gender. He now alleges this is a denial of equal protection. Synopsis of Rule of Law. A state may not preclude one gender or the other from participating in a unique educational environment solely on the basis of gender. ...

Craig v. Boren
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 429 U.S. 190, 97 S. Ct. 451, 50 L. Ed. 2d 397, 1976 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Oklahoma State maintained different drinking ages between men and women for the consumption of 3.2% alcohol beer. The Appellant, Craig (Appellant), now alleges that this difference violates the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution (Constitution). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Gender-based classifications must satisfy intermediate scrutiny requirements to pass constitutional muster. ...

United States v. Virginia
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 518 U.S. 515, 116 S. Ct. 2264, 135 L. Ed. 2d 735, 1996 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Virginia Military Institute (VMI) was the only single-sex collegiate institution run by the State of Virginia. The Petitioner, the United States (Petitioner), maintained that the Respondent, Virginia's (Respondent), exclusion of women from VMI violated the equal protection guarantee of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution (Constitution). Synopsis of Rule of Law. A state may not preclude one gender or the other from partici ...

Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 515 U.S. 200, 115 S. Ct. 2097, 132 L. Ed. 2d 158, 1995 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Adarand Constructors, a low-bidding subcontractor denied a contract on a federal highway project, sued the Secretary of Transportation, alleging that the federal governments incentives to hire minority subcontractors denied him equal protection of the laws. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Race classification by the federal government is subject to strict scrutiny. ...

Frontiero v. Richardson
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 411 U.S. 677, 93 S. Ct. 1764, 36 L. Ed. 2d 583, 1973 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. A female Air Force Lieutenant sought increased benefits on the basis of her husband as a dependent, which were refused by the armed services' policy of only allowing men to claim wives presumptively as dependents. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Gender-based classifications, like racial classifications, must pass strict scrutiny. ...

Milliken v. Bradley
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 418 U.S. 717, 94 S. Ct. 3112, 41 L. Ed. 2d 1069, 1974 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The schools of the city of Detroit, Michigan were racially imbalanced in the eyes of the District Court. The court's remedy was to redraw lines of neighboring suburban school districts to achieve racial balance within the city's schools. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The District Courts cannot redraw the lines of integrated school systems to achieve racial balance in a segregated school system absent an interdistrict violation or effect. ...

Board of Education of Oklahoma City Public Schools v. Dowell
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 498 U.S. 237, 111 S. Ct. 630, 112 L. Ed. 2d 715, 1991 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Petitioner, Board of Education of Oklahoma City (Petitioner), sought dissolution of the District Court-imposed school desegregation plan. Synopsis of Rule of Law. District Court authority over school districts extends only until the districts in question have complied with the injunctions long enough to reasonably redress past segregation. ...

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 438 U.S. 265, 98 S. Ct. 2733, 57 L. Ed. 2d 750, 1978 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Respondent, Bakke (Respondent), a white applicant to the University of California, Davis Medical School, sued the University, alleging his denial of admission on racial grounds was a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution (Constitution). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Although race may be a factor in determining admission to public educational institutions, it may not be a sole determining ...