United States v. Pool
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 462 U.S. 198, 103 S. Ct. 2309, 76 L. Ed. 2d 515, 1983 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Defendant Loye, and seven other defendants were charged and convicted for importing marijuana into the United States. A key piece of evidence used against Defendant Loye on one count was a phone call with a DEA agent. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The standard of admissibility of voice identification is prima facia and circumstantial evidence may be used. ...

United States v. Bagaric
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United States v. Howard-Arias
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 679 F.2d 363 (4th Cir. 1982) Brief Fact Summary. Appellant was arrested for various drug charges after the marijuana was discovered aboard his wrecked ship. The Coast Guard retrieved the marijuana after the ship sank, and Appellant challenges the chain of custody for admitting the evidence. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Tangible evidence must be authenticated prior to be admitted. ...

Griffin v. California
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United States v. Estes
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Trammel v. United States
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Jaffee v. Redmond
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 518 U.S. 1, 116 S. Ct. 1923, 135 L. Ed. 2d 337, 1996 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The administrator of decedent Ricky Allen's ("Mr. Allen") estate filed suit alleging Mr. Allen's constitutional rights were violated when he was killed by the Respondent, Redmond (the "Respondent"), an on-duty police officer. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Federal Rules of Evidence ("F.R.E.") Rule 501 authorizes the federal courts to define new privileges following the principles of common law. ...

In re Grand Jury
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 103 F.3d 1140, 1997 U.S. App. Brief Fact Summary. The Third Circuit Court of Appeals ("Third Circuit") considered a case from the Virgin Islands and a case from Delaware together, to decide whether a parent-child privilege should be recognized. The case from the Virgin Islands involved a grand jury seeking to force the testimony of a father against a son. The case from Delaware involved a grand jury seeking to have a daughter testify against her father. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Federal Rules of Evidence ("F.R.E.") Rule 501 ...

Upjohn Co. et al. v. United States et al
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 449 U.S. 383, 101 S. Ct. 677, 66 L. Ed. 2d 584 (1981) Brief Fact Summary. Defendant company sent out questionnaires and conducted interviews to determine the extent of questionable payments by foreign subsidiaries to foreign officials. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) submitted a summons for that work product. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Work product prepared by lower and middle managers in preparation of litigation is protected by the attorney-client privilege, even in instances of tax summonses. ...

United States v. Kovel
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 296 F.2d 918, 1961 U.S. App. Brief Fact Summary. Defendant is a non-lawyer accountant who worked for a law firm whose client was being investigated for income tax violations. He was sentenced for contempt for failing to answer a question claiming the attorney-client privileged applied to him. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The attorney-client privilege applies to communications made in confidence while obtaining legal advice from a lawyer. ...

Suburban Sew
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 91 F.R.D. 254, 1981 U.S. Dist. Brief Fact Summary. Plaintiffs, a sewing machine retailer, filed suit against sewing machine manufactures alleging price discrimination and conspiracy in violation of anti-trust laws. The Plaintiffs obtained documents which helped their case by going through Defendant's dumpster. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The attorney-client privilege does not extend to third parties who are not agents of the parties to the original communications. ...

United States v. Gould
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 131 S. Ct. 18, 178 L. Ed. 2d 348, 2010 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Defendants were convicted of importing and conspiracy to import drugs after attempting to smuggle cocaine into the United States in hollowed-out shoes. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Federal Rule of Evidence 201(g) which provides that in criminal cases, the court shall instruct the jury that it may, but is not required to, accept as conclusive any fact judicially noticed, only applies to adjudicative facts and not legislative. ...

People v. Meredith
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United States v. Jones
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 580 F.2d 219, 1978 U.S. App. 49 A.L.R. Fed. 904 Brief Fact Summary. Defendant was convicted of violating a federal eavesdropping law for listening to phone calls of his estranged wife. He was acquitted on post-trial motion arguing that the government failed to prove the phone company's carrier status as required by the law. Synopsis of Rule of Law. In a criminal case, a jury is not required to accept any judicially noticed fact. ...

Muller v. Oregon
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 208 U.S. 412, 28 S. Ct. 324, 52 L. Ed. 551 1908 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Oregon passed a statute limiting the number of hours women may work in factories and laundries to a maximum of ten hours per day, and it is being challenged as unconstitutional. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Judicial notice may be taken on matters of general knowledge if such facts are helpful in resolving questions of law. ...

Houser v. State
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Sandstrom v. Montana
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 442 U.S. 510, 99 S. Ct. 2450, 61 L. Ed. 2d 39, 1979 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Defendant was convicted of "deliberate homicide" for killing Annie Jensen. He admitted to the killing but argued that he lacked the intentional element of the crime because of a personality disorder made worse by alcohol use. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The Fourteen Amendment requires every element of a crime to be proved by the State beyond a reasonable doubt. ...

Government of the Virgin Islands v. Knight
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 483 F.3d 34, 2007 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The defendant, Henry Knight (the "defendant"), beat the victim, Andreas Miller ("Mr. Miller"), in the head with a pistol, and the pistol discharged during the beating killing Mr. Miller. The defendant was charged with second degree murder, and was found guilty of voluntary manslaughter and of two weapons charges. The defendant admitted to the beating, but contended the shooting was accidental Synopsis of Rule of Law. Witness testimony in the form of opinions or inferences is lim ...

State v. Moore
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 268 Mont. 20, 885 P.2d 457, 1994 Mont. 51 Mont. St. Rep. 1151 Brief Fact Summary. Defendant, Larry Moore, was charged with murdering Brad Brisbin. He gave conflicting testimony regarding his encounters with Brisbin the day he was killed. DNA evidence was used connecting Defendant to the murder by analyzing blood, muscle, and tissue found in the Defendant's truck. Synopsis of Rule of Law. DNA testing satisfies the Daubert standard for admission. ...

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc
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View this case and other resources at: Citation. 509 U.S. 579, 113 S. Ct. 2786, 125 L. Ed. 2d 469, 1993 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Petitioners, two minor children and their parents (the "Petitioners"), sued the Respondent, Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals (the "Respondent"), alleging that the children's serious birth defects were caused by the mother's prenatal use of Bendectin, a drug manufactured by the Respondent. Bendectin is a prescription anti-nausea drug. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The common law does not trump the legislatively enacted Federal Rules of Evidence (F.R.E.). ...

Kumho Tire Co v. Carmichael
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United States v. Havens
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United States v. Medical Therapy Sciences
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Harris v. New York
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Jenkins v. Anderson
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