Champion v. Ames
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. ...

National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 301 U.S. 1, 57 S. Ct. 615, 81 L. Ed. 893, 1937 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The National Labor Relations Board ("N.L.R.B.") brought suit against the Defendant, Jones & Laughlin (Defendant), for engaging in unfair labor practices, specifically, the discharge of certain employees based on union affiliation. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress' power to regulate commerce is plenary, in the sense that intrastate activities that affect interstate commerce are within the purview of the commerce power. ...

A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 295 U.S. 495, 55 S. Ct. 837, 79 L. Ed. 1570, 1935 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Defendant, A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corporation (Defendant), a slaughterhouse in New York City, was sued under the "Live Poultry Code," which regulated the poultry industry by requiring collective bargaining, a 40 hour work week, and a minimum wage, among other provisions. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The Commerce Power ceases where the currents of interstate commerce stop. ...

Gibbons v. Ogden
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 22 U.S. 1, 9 Wheat. 1, 6 L. Ed. 23 (1824) Brief Fact Summary. The State of New York had issued an exclusive license to operate steamboats in New York waters to Fulton and Livingston. Their licensee and the Plaintiff - Respondent, Ogden (Plaintiff), sued the Defendant - Appellant, Gibbons (Defendant), for operating a competing ferry service. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The commerce power is a broad regulatory power. ...

United States v. E. C. Knight Co
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 156 U.S. 1, 15 S. Ct. 249, 39 L. Ed. 325, 1895 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. American Sugar Refining Company (American) purchased four refineries in Philadelphia, effectively monopolizing sugar refining in the United States. The company was subsequently sued by the federal government for engaging in combinations in restraint of trade. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Exercise of the Commerce Power may not destroy the police power retained by the states. ...

Carter v. Carter Coal Co
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 298 U.S. 238, 56 S. Ct. 855, 80 L. Ed. 1160, 1936 U.S. 950 Brief Fact Summary. Respondent challenges the constitutionality of the Bituminous Coal Conservation Act of 1935 (the Act). Synopsis of Rule of Law. "Commerce" is the equivalent of "intercourse for the purposes of trade." ...

Nixon v. United States
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 506 U.S. 224, 113 S. Ct. 732, 122 L. Ed. 2d 1 (1993) Brief Fact Summary. The Petitioner, Nixon (Petitioner), a former federal judge, asks the Supreme Court of the United States (Supreme Court) to decide whether Senate Rule XI, as applied in his impeachment trial, is constitutional. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Impeachment trials are nonjusticiable. ...

McCulloch v. Maryland
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 17 U.S. 316, 4 Wheat. 316, 4 L. Ed. 579 (1819) Brief Fact Summary. The State of Maryland sued the Maryland branch of the Bank of the United States for non-payment of state taxes levied against it. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The United States Constitution (Constitution) is the supreme law of the United States and state law must defer to it. ...

Baker v. Carr
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 369 U.S. 186, 82 S. Ct. 691, 7 L. Ed. 2d 663 (1962) Brief Fact Summary. Appellants brought suit, challenging malapportionment of state legislatures under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Synopsis of Rule of Law. An apportionment case may be reviewed on Fourteenth Amendment grounds, so long as these grounds are independent from political question elements. ...

Powell v. McCormack
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 395 U.S. 486, 89 S. Ct. 1944, 23 L. Ed. 2d 491 (1969) Brief Fact Summary. After being elected to the House of Representatives (the House), the House denied membership to the Plaintiff-Petitioner, Powell (Plaintiff). Plaintiff now sues for installment as a representative. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The "textual commitment" to a constitutional provision by a political branch is justiciable. ...

Goldwater v. Carter
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 444 U.S. 996, 100 S. Ct. 533, 62 L. Ed. 2d 428, 1979 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Defendant, United States President Jimmy Carter (Defendant), rescinded a treaty with Taiwan as part of recognizing the People's Republic of China. The Plaintiff, United States Senator Barry Goldwater (Plaintiff), sued, alleging that the Senate must rescind treaties. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Questions of a purely political nature are nonjusticiable. ...

Abbott Laboratories v. Gardner
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 387 U.S. 136, 87 S. Ct. 1507, 18 L. Ed. 2d 681, 1967 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Petitioners, Abbot Laboratories (Petitioners), sought declaratory judgment on the 1962 amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) that required prescription drug manufacturers to print the "established name" of the drug on labels and other printed materials that referred to the drug. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Declaratory judgment is appropriate when the issues are fit for judicial decision, and there is undue hardship to the p ...

Friends of the Earth, Incorporated v. Laidlaw Environmental Services
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 528 U.S. 167, 120 S. Ct. 693, 145 L. Ed. 2d 610, 2000 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Defendant - respondent, Laidlaw Environmental Services (Defendant), contends that its shutdown of a waste processing facility and its compliance efforts render a citizen suit under the Clean Water Act moot. Synopsis of Rule of Law. When a defendant argues that voluntary cessation of an activity renders a suit moot, the defendant has the burden of proving that the allegedly wrong behavior could not reasonably be expected to recur. ...

United States Parole Commission v. Geraghty
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 445 U.S. 388, 100 S. Ct. 1202, 63 L. Ed. 2d 479, 1980 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Geraghty, a federal inmate and Plaintiff-Respondent (Plaintiff), brought suit against the Defendant-Petitioner, the United States Parole Commission (Defendant). Besides his own suit he also sought certification of the suit as a class action on behalf of all federal prisoners who are or will become eligible for parole. Synopsis of Rule of Law. A class action may survive, even if the named Plaintiff's case becomes moot before certification of the clas ...

Flast v. Cohen
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 392 U.S. 83, 88 S. Ct. 1942, 20 L. Ed. 2d 947, 1968 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Appellant, including Flast (Appellants), brought suit, claiming standing solely as taxpayers, seeking to enjoin expenditure of federal funds on religious schools. Appellants claimed such expenditures violated the Establishment and Free Exercise clauses of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution (Constitution). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Taxpayer standing is appropriate when the plaintiff challenges an enactment under the taxing and spe ...

Valley Forge Christian College v. Americans United for the Separation of Church and State, Inc., et al
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 454 U.S. 464, 102 S. Ct. 752, 70 L. Ed. 2d 700, 1982 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Respondents, Americans United for the Separation of Church and State, Inc. (Respondent), brought suit as taxpayers. They alleged that the Department of Health Education and Welfare grant of United States property to a religious college violated the Establishment and Free Exercise clause of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution (Constitution). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Taxpayer standing is appropriate when the plaintiff challenges a ...

Poe v. Ullman
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 367 U.S. 497, 81 S. Ct. 1752, 6 L. Ed. 2d 989, 1961 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Appellants, several couples and their physician (Appellants), brought suit, seeking the overturn of a Connecticut statute prohibiting the use of contraceptive devices and the giving of medical advice on the use of such devices. Synopsis of Rule of Law. A penal statute is not ripe for constitutional challenge unless it is enforced by the state enacting the statute. ...

Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 504 U.S. 555, 112 S. Ct. 2130, 119 L. Ed. 2d 351, 1992 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Respondents, various wildlife conservation organizations (Respondents), brought suit against the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary), seeking a declaratory judgment on regulations promulgated by Department of Interior agencies regarding the Endangered Species Act of 1973 ("ESA"). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Constitutional minimum standing requires three elements: (a) plaintiff must have suffered injury in fact; (b) there must be a causal connect ...

Singleton v. Wulff
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 428 U.S. 106, 96 S. Ct. 2868, 49 L. Ed. 2d 826, 1976 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Two Missouri physicians sued the state, charging that Missouri's statute prohibiting Medicaid payments for abortions which are not "medically indicated" unconstitutionally interferes with the decision to terminate a pregnancy. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The rule prohibiting third-party standing should not apply when the relationship of the litigant and the one whose rights he asserts is significantly close and where there is some obstacle to the first ...

United States v. Richardson
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 418 U.S. 166, 94 S. Ct. 2940, 41 L. Ed. 2d 678, 1974 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Richardson, the Plaintiff-Respondent (Plaintiff) sued Congress. He alleged that public reporting under the Central Intelligence Agency ("CIA") Act of 1949 violates Article I, s 9, cl. 7 (the Act) of the United States Constitution (Constitution), the statement and account clause. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Standing is denied to "generalized grievances." ...

Plaut v. Spendthrift Farm, Inc
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 514 U.S. 211, 115 S. Ct. 1447, 131 L. Ed. 2d 328, 1995 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Plaintiff - Petitioner, Plaut (Petitioner), sued the Defendant - Respondent, Spendthrift Farm (Respondent), under Section: 10 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Act). The suit was dismissed for not being filed in a timely fashion. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress may not require the federal courts to reopen a case after a court has rendered final judgment. ...

Allen v. Wright
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 468 U.S. 737, 104 S. Ct. 3315, 82 L. Ed. 2d 556, 1984 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Parents of black public school children brought suit against the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS"), alleging that insufficient denial of tax-exempt status to racially discriminatory private schools interferes with their children's ability to receive an education in public schools. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Article III standing requires that a plaintiff allege a harm directly traceable to specific action on the part of the defendant. ...

Ex parte McCardle
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 74 U.S. 506, 7 Wall. 506, 19 L. Ed. 264 (1869) Brief Fact Summary. McCardle, a newspaper editor arrested for writing articles critical of Reconstruction, petitioned the Supreme Court of the United States (United States) for a writ of habeas corpus. McCardle argued the Military Reconstruction Act (the Act) and his prosecution were unconstitutional. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress, by repealing the United State Supreme Court's (Supreme Court) appellate review of writs of habeas corpus, effectively took jurisdiction over Mc ...

Felker v. Turpin
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 518 U.S. 651, 116 S. Ct. 2333, 135 L. Ed. 2d 827, 1996 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Defendant, Ellis Wayne Felker (Defendant), while on death row, twice petitioned the federal courts for a writ of habeas corpus. While his second petition was pending, Congress passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 ("AEDPA"). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress may limit Supreme Court of the United States (Supreme Court) jurisdiction under the Exceptions and Regulations Clause of the United States Constitution (Constitut ...

United States v. Klein
Brief

Citation. 80 U.S. 128, 20 L. Ed. 519, 1871 U.S. 1319, 13 Wall. 128 Brief Fact Summary. The Respondent, Klein (Respondent), brought suit in the United States Court of Claims, seeking compensation for property taken during the Civil War. The Respondent now argues for affirmation on appeal. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Although Congress has power to limit the appellate jurisdiction of the federal courts, it may not use this power to effectively prescribe a rule for the decision of cases before the courts. ...