John M. Mistretta v. United States
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 488 U.S. 361, 109 S. Ct. 647, 02 L. Ed. 2d 714, 1989 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Congress enacted a determinate sentencing scheme for federal crimes and created the United States Sentencing Commission (the Commission) to devise guidelines that judges were obligated to use in sentencing. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress is not forbidden from delegating its legislative power to another person or entity if lays down an "intelligible principle" to which the person or entity is directed to conform. ...

Immigration and Naturalization Services v. Jagdish Rai Chadha
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 462 U.S. 919, 103 S. Ct. 2764, 77 L. Ed. 2d 317, 1983 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Plaintiffs, Chadha and others (Plaintiffs), challenged a federal statute, which purported to authorize one House of Congress, by resolution, to invalidate the decision of the Attorney General of the United States (Attorney General) to allow a specific deportable illegal immigrant to remain in the United States. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Legislative action is not legitimate unless there is bicameral approval and presentment to the President of the ...

Alexia Morrison, Independent Counsel v. Theodore B. Olson
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 487 U.S. 654, 108 S. Ct. 2597, 101 L. Ed. 2d 569, 1988 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. An Independent Counsel was appointed by the Special Division of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, to investigate a high-ranking government official. The official responded by claiming that the appointment of an Independent Counsel was unconstitutional. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Since the Independent Counsel is an inferior officer, a law giving judges the authority to appoint an Independent Counsel did not violate the United States Constitution (Con ...

A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 295 U.S. 495, 55 S. Ct. 837, 9 L. Ed. 1570, 1935 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Congress delegated authority to an executive agency to regulate various industries. In turn, the President of the United States (the President) redelegated that power to business groups and boards of various industries, to create industry wide codes of conduct. The Defendant, A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corporation (Defendant), was indicted for violating one of the codes. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress may not delegate law-making authority to an executiv ...

Panama Refining Co. v. Ryan
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 293 U.S. 388, 55 S. Ct. 241, 79 L. Ed. 446, 1935 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Congress delegated to the President of the United States (the President) the power to restrict or prohibit the interstate and foreign transport of petroleum. Synopsis of Rule of Law. It is a violation of the separation of powers doctrine for Congress to delegate law-making authority to the President without imposing standards or rules limiting that authority. ...

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 343 U.S. 579, 72 S. Ct. 863, 6 L. Ed. 1153, 1952 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Steel workers threatened to strike and shutdown all steel mills throughout the United States. To avoid this potential harm to the national defense, the President issued an executive order placing control of all mills in the hands of the Secretary of Commerce. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The President is limited to vetoing and suggesting laws; he is not to create laws. ...

United States v. Richard M. Nixon, President of the United States
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 506 U.S. 224, 113 S. Ct. 732, 122 L. Ed. 2d 1 (1993) Brief Fact Summary. The Plaintiff, the President of the United States Richard Nixon (Plaintiff) refused to turn over tapes of his secretly recorded conversations that had been subpoenaed to assist in the prosecution of individuals in the Watergate break-in. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Conversations between the President of the United States (the President) and his advisors are generally privileged, but that privilege is no absolute. ...

William J. Clinton, President of the United States v. City of New York
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 524 U.S. 417, 118 S. Ct. 2091, 41 L. Ed. 2d 393, 1998 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Defendant, the President of the United States, William Clinton (Defendant) used his newly acquired Line Item Veto Power to cancel two items of congressional spending. The Plaintiffs the City of New York and various others (Plaintiffs) and the intended recipients of the vetoed spending sued. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The Line Item Veto Power is unconstitutional. ...

Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 528 U.S. 62, 120 S. Ct. 631, 145 L. Ed. 2d 522, 2000 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Petitioners, including Kimel (Petitioners), brought suit against the Respondents, the Florida Board of Regents (Respondents), a state employer under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA). Respondents argued that the ADEA does not effectively abrogate their sovereign immunity. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Legislation must be congruent and proportional to a legitimate end to abrogate sovereign immunity under Section: 5 of the Fourteen ...

Alden v. Maine
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 527 U.S. 706, 119 S. Ct. 2240, 144 L. Ed. 2d 636, 1999 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Petitioners, a group of probation officers (Petitioners), brought suit in Maine State Court, alleging that their employer, the State of Maine (Respondent) violated overtime provisions of the federal Fair Labor Standards Act ("FLSA"). Synopsis of Rule of Law. State sovereign immunity prevents a non-consenting state from being sued in state court for violations of federal law. ...

Fitzpatrick v. Bitzer
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 427 U.S. 445, 96 S. Ct. 2666, 49 L. Ed. 2d 614, 1976 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. In 1972, Congress amended Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (the Act), authorizing private suits for monetary damages. In doing so, Congress cited its authority under Section: 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment (Section:5 of the Fourteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution (Constitution). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress may authorize private suits against states under Section: 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment that are impermissible in ot ...

Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Florida
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 517 U.S. 44, 116 S. Ct. 1114, 134 L. Ed. 2d 252, 1996 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Petitioners brought suit under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, which authorizes suits against state governments to enforce good faith negotiations with tribes attempting to allow gambling on reservations. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The Indian Commerce Clause does not allow Congress to abrogate state sovereign immunity. ...

Florida Prepaid Postsecondary Education Expense Board v. College Savings Bank and United States
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 527 U.S. 627, 119 S. Ct. 2199, 144 L. Ed. 2d 575, 1999 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Respondent, College Savings Bank (Respondent), brought suit against a Florida state agency, alleging infringement of a patent it holds, under the Patent and Plant Variety Protection Remedy Clarification Act (Patent Remedy Act). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress may not abrogate state sovereign immunity in patent infringement cases under Section: 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution (Constitution). ...

United States v. Morrison
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 529 U.S. 598, 120 S. Ct. 1740, 146 L. Ed. 2d 658, 2000 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Respondent, Morrison (Respondent), was sued under part of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (Act), which penalized crimes of violence motivated by gender. Now Respondent argues this section of the Act is beyond the scope of Congress' power to regulate commerce. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Intrastate actions must be economic in nature to be viewed in aggregate by courts reviewing a Commerce Clause case. ...

Katzenbach v. Morgan and Morgan
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 384 U.S. 641, 86 S. Ct. 1717, 16 L. Ed. 2d 828, 1966 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. New York State required English literacy as a prerequisite to voting. The State Attorney General alleges that Section: 4(e) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (the Act) can only be sustained if the Court determines New York's requirement violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution (Constitution). Synopsis of Rule of Law. A congressional enactment under Section: 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment of the ...

City of Boerne v. Flores
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 521 U.S. 507, 117 S. Ct. 2157, 138 L. Ed. 2d 624, 1997 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Archbishop of San Antonio challenged a city ordinance of Boerne under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act ("RFRA"). The Respondent argued the ordinance is an unconstitutional exercise of congressional power under Section: 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution (Constitution). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congressional action under Section: 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution may be remedial or preventative i ...

Reno v. Condon
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 528 U.S. 141, 120 S. Ct. 666, 145 L. Ed. 2d 587, 2000 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. South Carolina brought suit against United States Attorney General Reno, arguing that the Driver's Privacy Protection Act of 1994 ("DPPA") violated the Tenth Amendment's limitation on the Federal Government's power to regulate the states. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The Tenth Amendment does not prevent the Federal Government from regulating the States as individual entities if it does not ask the States to enforce a federal program. ...

United States v. Butler
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 458 Fed. Appx. 166 (3d Cir. 2012) [2012 BL 12969] Brief Fact Summary. Butler, the Respondent (Respondent), seeks judgment that the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 (the Act) is unconstitutional in its scope. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress may tax and apportion for the general welfare, but Congress may not use taxation as a means to exercise powers retained by the States. ...

South Dakota v. Dole
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 483 U.S. 203, 107 S. Ct. 2793, 97 L. Ed. 2d 171, 1987 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Appellant alleges that the federal withholding of a small percentage of highway funds to states allowing public possession or purchase of alcohol by individuals under 21 years is unconstitutional. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Non-coercive financial incentives by Congress are a constitutional exercise of the taxing and spending power. ...

United States v. Morrison
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 529 U.S. 598, 120 S. Ct. 1740, 146 L. Ed. 2d 658, 2000 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Respondent, Morrison (Respondent), was sued under part of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (Act), which penalized crimes of violence motivated by gender. Now Respondent argues this section of the Act is beyond the scope of Congress' power to regulate commerce. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Intrastate actions must be economic in nature to be viewed in aggregate by courts reviewing a Commerce Clause case. ...

New York v. United States
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 505 U.S. 144, 112 S. Ct. 2408, 120 L. Ed. 2d 120, 1992 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act) sought to address disposal of radioactive waste. One provision of the Act requires the State to take title to any waste of which it is not able to provide disposal. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress may not "commandeer[r] the legislative processes of the States" by compulsion. ...

Printz v. United States
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 521 U.S. 898, 117 S. Ct. 2365, 138 L. Ed. 2d 914, 1997 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Various state chief law enforcement officers ("CLEOs") brought suit, alleging that the interim provisions of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (the Act) unconstitutionally required state executive officers to apply a federal regulatory program. Synopsis of Rule of Law. "The Federal Government may not compel the States to enact or administer a federal regulatory program." ...

Katzenbach v. McClung, Sr. and McClung, Jr
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 379 U.S. 294, 85 S. Ct. 377, 13 L. Ed. 2d 290 (1964) Brief Fact Summary. Ollie's Barbecue, a family-run business in Alabama did not serve blacks in the restaurant, which was in violation of Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (the Act). Synopsis of Rule of Law. Congress has the ability to require desegregation of restaurants under the Commerce Clause. ...

Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 469 U.S. 528, 105 S. Ct. 1005, 83 L. Ed. 2d 1016, 1985 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Appellant, Garcia (Appellant), brought suit against his employer the San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority (Appellee), arguing that its function as a transit authority was a "non-traditional" function of state government. Thus, it was bound by the standards of the Fair Labor Standards Act ("FLSA"). Synopsis of Rule of Law. The division between Congressional regulatory power under the commerce clause and state sovereignty is defined by poli ...

United States v. Lopez
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 514 U.S. 549, 115 S. Ct. 1624, 131 L. Ed. 2d 626, 1995 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The Defendant, Lopez (Defendant), a high school senior, was indicted under the federal Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990 (the Act). The Act prohibited knowing possession of a firearm at a place the individual has reasonable cause to believe is a school zone. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Mere possession of a firearm does not have enough of a connection to interstate commerce to support prohibition under the commerce power. ...