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Griswold v. Connecticut
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 381 U.S. 479, 85 S. Ct. 1678, 14 L. Ed. 2d 510, 1965 U.S. 2282. Brief Fact Summary. A Connecticut statute prohibited the use of contraceptives both by married and unmarried persons. The statute also prohibited anyone from helping couples obtain contraceptives. Griswold provided information as to the means of preventing conception and was fined as an accessory under the statute. Synopsis of Rule of Law. A law which seeks to achieve its goals by means having a destructive impact on a relationship lying within the zone of privacy ...

Plyler v. Doe
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 457 U.S. 202, 102 S. Ct. 2382, 72 L. Ed. 2d 786, 1982 U.S. 124. Brief Fact Summary. Pursuant to a Texas law, a local school district conditioned the enrollment in its schools of the children of illegal aliens on their payment of a "tuition fee." The constitutionality of the statute was brought into question. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The denial of the free public education to the children of undocumented aliens within a state's borders must be justified by a showing that such denial substantially furthers a substantial state in ...

San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 411 U.S. 1, 93 S. Ct. 1278, 36 L. Ed. 2d 16, 1973 U.S. 91. Brief Fact Summary. In Texas, public schools were financed primarily through a system whereby property taxes were imposed by local school districts. Because property values were higher in some districts, than in others, substantial disparities across districts in per pupil spending arose. The disparities in spending among public school children triggered a Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection challenge to the constitutionality of the system. Synopsis of Rule of Law. A ...

Shapiro v. Thompson
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 394 U.S. 618, 89 S. Ct. 1322, 22 L. Ed. 2d 600, 1969 U.S. 3190. Brief Fact Summary. Certain states enacted statutes denying welfare assistance to residents who had not lived in their jurisdictions for at least one year. The constitutionality of the statutes is brought into question. Synopsis of Rule of Law. One year waiting requirements for eligibility to a State's welfare benefits violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment inasmuch as they impose upon the fundamental right to travel. ...

Davis v. Bandemer
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 478 U.S. 109, 106 S. Ct. 2797, 92 L. Ed. 2d 85, 1986 U.S. 122. Brief Fact Summary. The Republican controlled Indiana legislature designed an apportionment scheme that resulted in the Democrats' voting strength being understated in terms of the number of seats in the legislature Democrats won. The Democrats sued. Synopsis of Rule of Law. In order to make out a case for unconstitutional apportionment, a plaintiff must show intentional discrimination on the part of the defendant against an identifiable political group and actual ...

Reynolds v. Sims
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 377 U.S. 533, 84 S. Ct. 1362, 12 L. Ed. 2d 506, 1964 U.S. 1002. Brief Fact Summary. By failing to reapportion seats for its legislature for 60 years, Alabama's voting scheme permitted a minority of the people in the State to elect a majority of the State's lawmakers. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The Equal Protection Clause of the United States Constitution (Constitution) requires that the seats in both houses of a bicameral state legislature be apportioned on a population basis. ...

City of Mobile v. Bolden
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 446 U.S. 55, 100 S. Ct. 1490, 64 L. Ed. 2d 47, 1980 U.S. 121. Brief Fact Summary. Each of Mobile, Alabama's City Commissioners was elected under an at-large voting scheme. No black had ever been elected to the Commission. The Appellees, Bolden and others (Appellees), challenged the constitutionality of the at-large system. Synopsis of Rule of Law. At-large electoral schemes are invalid only if their purpose is invidiously to minimize or cancel out the voting potential of racial or ethnic minorities. ...

Kramer v. Union Free School District No. 15
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 395 U.S. 621, 89 S. Ct. 1886, 23 L. Ed. 2d 583, 1969 U.S. 1261. Brief Fact Summary. A single man with no children who lived with his parents challenged a law that required voters in certain school board elections to either own or lease taxable property within that school district, or have children enrolled in the local schools. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Laws granting the voting franchise to residents on a selective basis always pose the danger of denying some citizens any effective voice in the governmental affairs which substa ...

Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 383 U.S. 663, 86 S. Ct. 1079, 16 L. Ed. 2d 169, 1966 U.S. 2905. Brief Fact Summary. A Virginia law mandated the payment of a poll tax, not to exceed $1.50, in order for citizens to be eligible to vote. The constitutionality of the law was brought into question. Synopsis of Rule of Law. A State violates the Equal Protection Clause of the United States Constitution (Constitution) by making the affluence of the voter or the payment of a fee an electoral standard. ...

Skinner v. Oklahoma
Content Type: Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 316 U.S. 535, 62 S. Ct. 1110, 86 L. Ed. 1655, 1942 U.S. 493. Brief Fact Summary. Under Oklahoma law, a person convicted a third time of certain specified crimes involving "moral turpitude" received the punishment of sterilization. Persons convicted a third time of other similar crimes were not. The constitutionality of this distinction was brought into question. Synopsis of Rule of Law. When the law concerning those who have committed intrinsically the same type of offense punishes one, but not the other by depriving the one o ...