Miami Herald v. Tornillo
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 418 U.S. 241, 94 S. Ct. 2831, 41 L. Ed. 2d 730, 1974 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Tornillo (Respondent) requested space in the paper to respond to editorials that ran the previous two weeks. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Infringing upon the editorial functions of a paper is unconstitutional. The government may not compel equal rebuttal access to print media on behalf of political candidates. ...

Branzburg v. Hayes
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 408 U.S. 665, 92 S. Ct. 2646, 33 L. Ed. 2d 626, 1972 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Two different reporters refuse to answer grand jury questions, which required the identification of their confidential sources. Synopsis of Rule of Law. News reporters are not exempt from appearing before a grand jury and answering questions. ...

Boy Scouts of America v. Dale
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 530 U.S. 640, 120 S. Ct. 2446, 147 L. Ed. 2d 554, 2000 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Dale (Respondent) had his status as a troop leader revoked because he is gay. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Freedom of expressive association is violated when a regulation significantly affects the organizations ability to advocate its viewpoints. Great deference is given to the organization in determining whether a regulation infringes upon its expression. ...

Minneapolis Star and Tribune Company v. Minnesota Commissioner of Revenue
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 460 U.S. 575, 103 S. Ct. 1365, 75 L. Ed. 2d 295, 1983 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The state imposed a special use tax on certain newspapers. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Differential taxation of the press is prohibited unless the state has a compelling objective that cannot be achieved without it. ...

Roberts v. United States Jaycees
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 468 U.S. 609, 104 S. Ct. 3244, 82 L. Ed. 2d 462, 1984 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Local Jaycees were threatened with expulsion from the national group because they allowed women to hold full-time membership. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Government may infringe upon the right to associate when the regulation serves a compelling state interest that is unrelated to the suppression of ideas and cannot be achieved through any less restrictive means. ...

Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Group of Boston
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 515 U.S. 557, 115 S. Ct. 2338, 132 L. Ed. 2d 487, 1995 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. A gay rights group requested permission, but was denied the right to march in the city's St. Patrick's Day parade. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The government may not compel a private speaker to alter its message to include generally accepted views. ...

Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 484 U.S. 260, 108 S. Ct. 562, 98 L. Ed. 2d 592, 1988 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. A school principal censored a student newspaper by removing some of the articles prior to publication. Synopsis of Rule of Law. A school may exercise great control over school-sponsored publications that students and members of the community might reasonably perceive to bear the imprimatur of the school. ...

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People v. State of Alabama, ex rel. Patterson
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 357 U.S. 449, 78 S. Ct. 1163, 2 L. Ed. 2d 1488, 1958 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP/Petitioner) was ordered to produce a membership list by the state court. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Freedom of association to promote beliefs is insured by the Fourteenth Amendment and is protected by adherence to strict scrutiny of any regulatory interference. ...

Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System v. Southworth
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 529 U.S. 217, 120 S. Ct. 1346, 146 L. Ed. 2d 193, 2000 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. College students are challenging the use of mandatory activity fees to support organizations that they do not support. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The First Amendment permits public universities to charge a student activity fee to fund a viewpoint neutral fund program for extracurricular student speech. ...

Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 393 U.S. 503, 89 S. Ct. 733, 21 L. Ed. 2d 731, 1969 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Tinker (Petitioner) was suspended from school for showing his support of the anti-war movement. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Student speech may be regulated when such speech would materially and substantially interfere with the discipline and operation of a school. ...

Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 478 U.S. 675, 106 S. Ct. 3159, 92 L. Ed. 2d 549, 1986 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. A student gave a nominating speech in a general school assembly that described another candidate with strong sexual metaphors. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Schools may determine that certain modes of expression are inappropriate and subject the speech to sanctions. ...

Parker v. Levy
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 417 U.S. 733, 94 S. Ct. 2547, 41 L. Ed. 2d 439, 1974 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Levy (Respondent) is an Army physician who is being court-martialed for making disparaging statements about the United States' involvement in Vietnam. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The fundamental necessity for obedience, and the consequent necessity for imposition of discipline renders certain military regulations permissible that would otherwise be prohibited by the United States Constitution. ...

Thornburg v. Abbott
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 490 U.S. 401, 109 S. Ct. 1874, 104 L. Ed. 2d 459, 1989 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. A prisoner was denied access to publications from the outside and challenges the constitutionality of such a regulation. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The government may restrict the speech of a prisoner as long as the restriction is reasonably related to a legitimate penological interest. ...

Arkansas Educational Television Commission v. Forbes
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 523 U.S. 666, 118 S. Ct. 1633, 140 L. Ed. 2d 875, 1998 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Forbes (Petitioner) was running for political office and was denied the opportunity to participate in a television debate. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The First Amendment does not compel public broadcasters to provide access to programming for third parties. ...

Lehman v. City of Shaker Heights
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 418 U.S. 298, 94 S. Ct. 2714, 41 L. Ed. 2d 770, 1974 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Lehman (Petitioner) is running for political office and wants to advertise on the public transit system. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Public transportation advertising space is not a public forum and may be regulated as long as it is not arbitrary. ...

United States v. Kokinda
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 497 U.S. 720, 110 S. Ct. 3115, 111 L. Ed. 2d 571, 1990 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The United States (Petitioner) prohibits the solicitation of contributions on postal property. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Solicitation is a protected form of speech subject to a reasonableness test. It may not be barred simply because the public official opposes the speaker's view. ...

Adderley v. Florida
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 385 U.S. 39, ; 87 S. Ct. 242, 17 L. Ed. 2d 149, 1966 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Adderley (Petitioner) was arrested for demonstrating on the grounds of the local jail. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The state has the power to preserve the property under its control for the use for which it is lawfully dedicated. ...

Greer v. Spock
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 424 U.S. 828, 96 S. Ct. 1211, 47 L. Ed. 2d 505, 1976 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Respondent, Spock was a presidential candidate that wanted to enter a military base and distribute campaign literature. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Military bases may constitutionally regulate speech because they are not non-public forums. ...

Hill et al. v. Colorado
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 530 U.S. 703, 120 S. Ct. 2480, 147 L. Ed. 2d 597, 2000 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. The state has a regulation that prohibits picketing within 100 feet of a healthcare facility entrance. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Time, place, and manner restriction of speech is justified when it is content-neutral and places minor restriction in a broad category of communications. ...

Ward v. Rock Against Racism
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 491 U.S. 781, 109 S. Ct. 2746, 105 L. Ed. 2d 661, 1989 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. Pock Against Racism (Respondent) is a sponsor of a rock concert who challenges New York City's restriction on the volume of performances on Central Park. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Government regulation of a public forum does not have to be the least restrictive alternative. ...

Schneider v. New Jersey
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. ...

Perry Education Assn. v. Perry Local Educator’s Assn
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 460 U.S. 37, 103 S. Ct. 948, 74 L. Ed. 2d 794, 1983 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. A teachers union was denied access to school district mailboxes to distribute informational brochures. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The government may reserve a forum for its purpose as long as the regulation is reasonable and not an effort to suppress views of its opponents. ...

Police Department of the City of Chicago v. Mosley
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 408 U.S. 92, 92 S. Ct. 2286, 33 L. Ed. 2d 212, 1972 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. A city had an ordinance prohibiting picketing next to a school. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Once a forum becomes public the government cannot prohibit speech there based on its content. ...

First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 435 U.S. 765, 98 S. Ct. 1407, 55 L. Ed. 2d 707, 1978 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. State prohibits corporations from spending money on promotions that will endorse or oppose local referendums. Synopsis of Rule of Law. The government may not restrict the topics of speech for corporations. ...

Buckley v. Valeo
Brief

View this case and other resources at: Citation. 424 U.S. 1, 96 S. Ct. 612,46 L. Ed. 2d 659, 1976 U.S. Brief Fact Summary. State regulated the amount citizens could contribute to political campaigns. Synopsis of Rule of Law. Restricting campaign expenditure is an unconstitutional restriction of political speech. But limiting contribution amounts is constitutional because donation is conduct and not speech. ...